AUTOMOTIVE RECYCLING: RECYCLING OF SCRAP CARS

Nowadays the industrialized countries not only successfully earn on recycling of used cars, but also solve the problems of environmental health and economy of natural resources of the planet.

Almost all economically developed countries have developed and operate programs at the governmental level, which include measures for qualified inspection (acceptance, processing) of machines, dismantling of VEA at recycling facilities, reuse of removed parts, recycling of bodies, burial of non-recyclable waste (mainly plastics, fabric). It is also about scrapy car removal in mississauga.

The handling of VEA is strictly regulated by normative and legal acts and is controlled by state authorities, and is regulated economically – enterprises are responsible for the recycling of their output. The necessary funds for recycling are allocated by the state (by collecting taxes from vehicle owners and importers) and accumulated in special environmental funds at the local and federal level.

In order to reduce the toxicity of waste, more and more attention is paid to the recovery of hazardous chemical materials (for example, heavy metals, chlorinated polymers, etc.) when dismantling cars. Appropriate standardized labeling of parts at the production stage contributes to this.

Recently special attention has been paid to recycling plastics, polypropylene, which are increasingly used in the production of automobiles. They can only be processed into recyclable materials and used with maximum efficiency if they are sorted by polymer type and by specific plastic grades. Some companies have standardized rubber and plastic parts labeling for this purpose so that material grades can be clearly identified.

More than 50 countries have passed special legislation for auto recycling. In 2008 the global autorecycling industry employed more than 2 million people and the total value of autorecycling products exceeded $200 billion. There are over 700 shredding facilities in operation around the world.

After natural resources, old machinery is becoming the second most important source of raw materials. At the same time the cost of “mining” scrap metal is much lower than that of iron ore. The value of crushed or shredded scrap for electric melting plants is obvious. There are about 40 shredders in Germany; they process 1.5 million tons of materials per year, including up to 900,000 tons of automotive scrap. In the USA there are more than two hundred such complexes, which process 11 million VEA.

Japan’s experience
The number of motor vehicles in Japan is about 80 million, the number of vehicles taken off the registration list is on the average about 5 million. About 1 million of them are used cars exported to other countries, the rest stay in Japan and are taken for recycling and utilization. Therefore, the organization of auto recycling structure is very important for Japan. Until recently, the VEA dismantling segment was mainly populated by small firms with few employees (only 3-4 employees), which on average could dismantle about 1,000 vehicles a year. In recent years, however, larger, more integrated companies have begun to emerge, including integrated companies that collect and dismantle VEAs, sort parts and materials, including shredding facilities as well. A large company can also use the important advantage of having access to used cars surrendered by owners to pay for the purchase of new ones, to maintain financial partnerships with car dealers, insurance companies, and leasing companies. However, it was noted that in recent years the number of VEAs coming in for dismantling and recycling has been decreasing, as more and more used vehicles are being resold at auctions and exported.

The VEA Act passed in 2002 came into force on January 1, 2005:

vehicle manufacturers or importers are required to pick up, process and recycle three special components: fluorochlorocarbons (trade name: freons), which are used in air conditioning systems and affect the earth’s ozone layer when released into the air; 2) airbag inflators, which are explosive and have disposal problems; and 3) shredder residues, which remain in large quantities after VEA recycling;
vehicle owners pay the fees required to recycle VEAs sufficient to dismantle and recycle airbag systems and freons, and to dispose of SHOs. (These fees are charged when new vehicles are purchased or when vehicles undergo mandatory periodic inspections);
Owners are required to send VEAs to certified VEA take-back centers upon completion of vehicle use;
vehicle manufacturers must consider aspects of their subsequent disposal as early as in the design phase, including the development and use of new vehicle designs, components, and materials to reduce the cost of vehicle recycling. Vehicle manufacturers must also provide recycling companies with detailed information about vehicle components and materials in order to facilitate recycling.
The basis for the successful implementation of the law is the specially established JARC (Japan Automobile Recycling Promotion Center) in Japan, which is certified by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and the Ministry of the Environment. According to the system established by law, the necessary amount to ensure the recycling of VEA is paid by the buyer when purchasing a new car. The average amount is about 10,000-18,000 yen per car; the exact amount is set by the car’s manufacturer (importer), but it must be approved by the regulatory authorities. This recycling fee goes to a special Auto Recycling Fund managed by JARC. This system was adopted in order to avoid problems with the collection of fees for the actual disposal of VEAs, as well as the risk of losing money due to bankruptcy or liquidation of automobile manufacturing and importing companies. For vehicles that had already been sold by the time the law was enacted, the system established a procedure to ensure that the recycling fee is paid by the time of the next mandatory vehicle inspection. This new auto recycling system replaced an earlier system where the car owner paid the recycling fee when he or she surrendered the VEA for recycling.

In order to meet the obligations set by the law for the manufacturers (importers) of cars (to recycle three components: freons, airbags and SHO), the company has the right to demand compensation for recycling costs from the Auto Recycling Fund. In order to recycle these components, automakers can enter into additional recycling contracts with special companies. The first stage of VEA processing involves collecting them and delivering them to dismantling facilities, where they are evaluated and sorted, removing gasoline, oils, liquids and other harmful substances that are prohibited for disposal in landfills. Components of value or used as parts are also dismantled from the VEA. On average, about 20-25% of the weight of VEA is dismantled as spare parts for subsequent sale immediately or after recovery, and about 15% of the weight is dismantled for recycling of materials. Dismantling of statutory components (air conditioning systems and airbag systems) is paid for by vehicle manufacturers. These and other components are then sent to certified recycling facilities. The remainder of the VEA (60-65% of the vehicle’s weight on average) goes to shredding plants for shredding and further recycling. The value at which the dismantling companies sell the residual VEA to shredding companies is determined by commercial agreements. The remaining shredder residues are either thermally recycled (energy recovery) or landfilled. The cost of placing 1 ton of SW in landfills in Japan is high and amounts to 20-25 thousand yen depending on the prefecture. In addition, there is a problem of a shortage of landfills for waste disposal, so various technologies for recycling of SHW are increasingly being developed.

vehicle manufacturers or importers are required to pick up, process and recycle three special components: fluorochlorocarbons (trade name: freons), which are used in air conditioning systems and affect the earth’s ozone layer when released into the air; 2) airbag inflators, which are explosive and have disposal problems; and 3) shredder residues, which remain in large quantities after VEA recycling;
vehicle owners pay the fees required to recycle VEAs sufficient to dismantle and recycle airbag systems and freons, and to dispose of SHOs. (These fees are charged when new vehicles are purchased or when vehicles undergo mandatory periodic inspections);
Owners are required to send VEAs to certified VEA take-back centers upon completion of vehicle use;
vehicle manufacturers must consider aspects of their subsequent disposal as early as in the design phase, including the development and use of new vehicle designs, components, and materials to reduce the cost of vehicle recycling. Vehicle manufacturers must also provide recycling companies with detailed information about vehicle components and materials in order to facilitate recycling.
The basis for the successful implementation of the law is the specially established JARC (Japan Automobile Recycling Promotion Center) in Japan, which is certified by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and the Ministry of the Environment. According to the system established by law, the necessary amount to ensure the recycling of VEA is paid by the buyer when purchasing a new car. The average amount is about 10,000-18,000 yen per car; the exact amount is set by the car’s manufacturer (importer), but it must be approved by the regulatory authorities. This recycling fee goes to a special Auto Recycling Fund managed by JARC. This system was adopted in order to avoid problems with the collection of fees for the actual disposal of VEAs, as well as the risk of losing money due to bankruptcy or liquidation of automobile manufacturing and importing companies. For vehicles that had already been sold by the time the law was enacted, the system established a procedure to ensure that the recycling fee is paid by the time of the next mandatory vehicle inspection. This new auto recycling system replaced an earlier system where the car owner paid the recycling fee when he or she surrendered the VEA for recycling.

In order to meet the obligations set by the law for the manufacturers (importers) of cars (to recycle three components: freons, airbags and SHO), the company has the right to demand compensation for recycling costs from the Auto Recycling Fund. In order to recycle these components, automakers can enter into additional recycling contracts with special companies. The first stage of VEA processing involves collecting them and delivering them to dismantling facilities, where they are evaluated and sorted, removing gasoline, oils, liquids and other harmful substances that are prohibited for disposal in landfills. Components of value or used as parts are also dismantled from the VEA. On average, about 20-25% of the weight of VEA is dismantled as spare parts for subsequent sale immediately or after recovery, and about 15% of the weight is dismantled for recycling of materials. Dismantling of statutory components (air conditioning systems and airbag systems) is paid for by vehicle manufacturers. These and other components are then sent to certified recycling facilities. The remainder of the VEA (60-65% of the vehicle’s weight on average) goes to shredding plants for shredding and further recycling. The value at which the dismantling companies sell the residual VEA to shredding companies is determined by commercial agreements. The remaining shredder residues are either thermally recycled (energy recovery) or landfilled. The cost of placing 1 ton of SW in landfills in Japan is high and amounts to 20-25 thousand yen depending on the prefecture. In addition, there is a problem of a shortage of landfills for waste disposal, so various technologies for recycling of SHW are increasingly being developed.

According to the documentation provided, approximately 2.7 million vehicles entered the shredder in 2005, with 500,000 tons of WOE produced. The passage of the WEA Act has served to create a competitive infrastructure for the development of WOE recycling technology and the reduction of the amount of waste generated. The overall recycling rate of WEEE components and materials in Japan now averages about 80%. Licensing and registration processes for WEEE collection and recycling companies, as well as electronic WEEE accounting procedures, have made it possible to analyze and quantify recycling streams. The degree of VEA recycling in Japan is expected to increase because the new system strictly controls VEA accounting, controls unauthorized disposal of CFCs and fluids, and stimulates the development of WEEE recycling technology.

The enactment of the VEA Act in Japan coincided with changes in the system for deregistering vehicles. Previously, there were two systems for deregistering. Permanent deregistration was used to dismantle a registered vehicle, and temporary deregistration was used to sell a used vehicle. But such a system was changed to allow authorities to determine whether a used vehicle was dismantled or exported and to reduce illegal dumping.

A three-step system of deregistration was introduced: temporary deregistration, permanent deregistration and deregistration for export purposes. Permanent deregistration requires a certificate of dismantling and confirmation in the electronic record system. An export certificate is required for deregistration for export purposes. A temporary deregistration is issued for a vehicle that is not in use but has commercial value and is intended to be sold as a used vehicle. The location of such a vehicle may be checked, especially if the vehicle has been stored for an extended period of time. If such a vehicle does not get a new registration in Japan, then an export certificate in case of export of the vehicle or a dismantling certificate in case of disposal, meaning permanent de-registration, must be issued at a later date. There is a great demand for used cars from Japan, so their export is increasing every year. However, public and governmental organizations in Japan have concerns that the increasing export of older cars outside the country may be due to inadequate VEA recycling systems in other countries where VEA laws are weak or non-existent.

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